dimanche 22 février 2009

Historique de la photographie panoramique (en anglais) - source wikipedia

One of the first recorded patents for a panoramic camera was submitted by Joseph Puchberger in Austria in 1843 for a hand-cranked, 150° field of view, 8-inch focal length camera that exposed a relatively large Daguerreotype, up to 24 inches (610 mm) long. A more successful and technically superior panoramic camera was assembled the next year by Friedrich von Martens in Germany in 1844. His camera, the Megaskop, added the crucial feature of set gears which offered a relatively steady panning speed. This in turn properly exposed the photographic plate, as unsteady speeds can create an unevenness in exposure, called banding. [Martens did not invent in Germany but rather Paris, France, where he was employed by Lerebours, photographer/publisher. It is also possible that Martens camera was perfected before Puchberger patented his camera]. Because of the high cost of materials and the technical difficulty of properly exposing the plates, Daguerreotype panoramas, especially those pieced together from several plates (see below) are rare.[citation needed]

After the advent of wet-plate collodion process, photographers would take anywhere from 2 to a dozen of the ensuing albumen prints and piece them together to form a panoramic image (see: Segmented). This photographic process was technically easier and far less expensive than Daguerreotypes. Some of the most famous early panoramas were assembled this way by George Barnard, a photographer for the Union Army in the American Civil War in the 1860s. His work provided vast overviews of fortifications and terrain, much valued by engineers, generals, and artists alike. (see Photography and photographers of the American Civil War)[citation needed]

Following the invention of flexible film in 1888, panoramic photography was revolutionised. Dozens of cameras were marketed, many with brand names heavily indicative of their time. Cameras such as the Cylindrograph, Wonder Panoramic, Pantascopic and Cyclo-Pan, are some examples of panoramic cameras.[citation needed]

A 1900 advertisement for a short rotation panoramic camera
The historic 101 Ranch in Oklahoma showing the ranchhouse, corrals, and out-buildings.


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